The Barbarian

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The Barbarian

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According to Greek writers, this was because the language they spoke sounded to Greeks like gibberish represented by the sounds "bar.. However, in various occasions, the term was also used by Greeks, especially the Athenians , to deride other Greek tribes and states such as Epirotes, Eleans, Macedonians, Boeotians and Aeolic-speakers but also fellow Athenians, in a pejorative and politically motivated manner.

Plato Statesman de rejected the Greek—barbarian dichotomy as a logical absurdity on just such grounds: dividing the world into Greeks and non-Greeks told one nothing about the second group, yet Plato used the term barbarian frequently in his seventh letter.

In general, the concept of barbaros did not figure largely in archaic literature before the 5th century BC. A change occurred in the connotations of the word after the Greco-Persian Wars in the first half of the 5th century BC.

Here a hasty coalition of Greeks defeated the vast Persian Empire. Indeed, in the Greek of this period 'barbarian' is often used expressly to refer to Persians, who were enemies of the Greeks in this war.

The Romans used the term barbarus for uncivilised people, opposite to Greek or Roman, and in fact, it became a common term to refer to all foreigners among Romans after Augustus age as, among the Greeks, after the Persian wars, the Persians , including the Germanic peoples, Persians, Gauls, Phoenicians and Carthaginians.

The Greek term barbaros was the etymological source for many words meaning "barbarian", including English barbarian , which was first recorded in 16th century Middle English.

A word barbara- is also found in the Sanskrit of ancient India, with the primary meaning of "stammering" implying someone with an unfamiliar language.

In Aramaic, Old Persian and Arabic context, the root refers to "babble confusedly". It appears as barbary or in Old French barbarie , itself derived from the Arabic Barbar , Berber , which is an ancient Arabic term for the North African inhabitants west of Egypt.

The Arabic word might be ultimately from Greek barbaria. The Oxford English Dictionary gives five definitions of the noun barbarian , including an obsolete Barbary usage.

The OED barbarous entry summarizes the semantic history. Greek attitudes towards "barbarians" developed in parallel with the growth of chattel slavery - especially in Athens.

Although the enslavement of Greeks for non-payment of debts continued in most Greek states, Athens banned this practice under Solon in the early 6th century BC.

Under the Athenian democracy established ca. Massive concentrations of slaves worked under especially brutal conditions in the silver mines at Laureion in south-eastern Attica after the discovery of a major vein of silver-bearing ore there in BC, while the phenomenon of skilled slave craftsmen producing manufactured goods in small factories and workshops became increasingly common.

Furthermore, slave-ownership no longer became the preserve of the rich: all but the poorest of Athenian households came to have slaves in order to supplement the work of their free members.

Aristotle Politics 1. From this period, words like barbarophonos , cited above from Homer, came into use not only for the sound of a foreign language but also for foreigners who spoke Greek improperly.

In the Greek language, the word logos expressed both the notions of "language" and "reason", so Greek-speakers readily conflated speaking poorly with stupidity.

Eventually the term found a hidden meaning through the folk etymology of Cassiodorus c. He stated that the word barbarian was "made up of barba beard and rus flat land ; for barbarians did not live in cities, making their abodes in the fields like wild animals".

From classical origins the Hellenic stereotype of barbarism evolved: barbarians are like children, unable to speak or reason properly, cowardly, effeminate, luxurious, cruel, unable to control their appetites and desires, politically unable to govern themselves.

Writers voiced these stereotypes with much shrillness - Isocrates in the 4th century B. However, the disparaging Hellenic stereotype of barbarians did not totally dominate Hellenic attitudes.

Xenophon died B. In his Anabasis , Xenophon's accounts of the Persians and other non-Greeks who he knew or encountered show few traces of the stereotypes.

The renowned orator Demosthenes — B. In the Bible's New Testament , St. Paul from Tarsus - lived about A. About a hundred years after Paul's time, Lucian — a native of Samosata , in the former kingdom of Commagene , which had been absorbed by the Roman Empire and made part of the province of Syria — used the term "barbarian" to describe himself.

Because he was a noted satirist, this could have indicated self-deprecating irony. It might also have suggested descent from Samosata's original Semitic population — who were likely called "barbarians by later Hellenistic, Greek-speaking settlers", and might have eventually taken up this appellation themselves.

Cicero BC described the mountain area of inner Sardinia as "a land of barbarians", with these inhabitants also known by the manifestly pejorative term latrones mastrucati "thieves with a rough garment in wool".

The statue of the Dying Galatian provides some insight into the Hellenistic perception of and attitude towards "Barbarians".

Attalus I of Pergamon ruled BC commissioned s BC a statue to celebrate his victory ca BC over the Celtic Galatians in Anatolia the bronze original is lost, but a Roman marble copy was found in the 17th century.

He sits on his fallen shield while a sword and other objects lie beside him. He appears to be fighting against death, refusing to accept his fate.

The statue serves both as a reminder of the Celts' defeat, thus demonstrating the might of the people who defeated them, and a memorial to their bravery as worthy adversaries.

Janson comments, the sculpture conveys the message that "they knew how to die, barbarians that they were".

The Greeks admired Scythians and Galatians as heroic individuals — and even as in the case of Anacharsis as philosophers — but they regarded their culture as barbaric.

The Romans indiscriminately characterised the various Germanic tribes , the settled Gauls , and the raiding Huns as barbarians, [ citation needed ] and subsequent classically oriented historical narratives depicted the migrations associated with the end of the Western Roman Empire as the " barbarian invasions ".

The Romans adapted the term in order to refer to anything that was non-Roman. The German cultural historian Silvio Vietta points out that the meaning of the word "barbarous" has undergone a semantic change in modern times, after Michel de Montaigne used it to characterize the activities of the Spaniards in the New World — representatives of the more technologically advanced, higher European culture — as "barbarous," in a satirical essay published in the year Montaigne argued that Europeans noted the barbarism of other cultures but not the crueler and more brutal actions of their own societies, particularly in his time during the so-called religious wars.

In Montaigne's view, his own people — the Europeans — were the real "barbarians". In this way, the argument was turned around and applied to the European invaders.

With this shift in meaning, a whole literature arose in Europe that characterized the indigenous Indian peoples as innocent, and the militarily superior Europeans as "barbarous" intruders invading a paradisical world.

Historically, the term barbarian has seen widespread use, in English. Many peoples have dismissed alien cultures and even rival civilizations, because they were unrecognizably strange.

For instance, the nomadic steppe peoples north of the Black Sea , including the Pechenegs and the Kipchaks , were called barbarians by the Byzantines.

The native Berbers of North Africa were among the many peoples called "Barbarian" by the early Romans. The term continued to be used by medieval Arabs see Berber etymology before being replaced by " Amazigh ".

In English, the term "Berber" continues to be used as an exonym. The geographical term Barbary or Barbary Coast , and the name of the Barbary pirates based on that coast and who were not necessarily Berbers were also derived from it.

The term has also been used to refer to people from Barbary , a region encompassing most of North Africa. The name of the region, Barbary, comes from the Arabic word Barbar, possibly from the Latin word barbaricum, meaning "land of the barbarians.

Many languages define the "Other" as those who do not speak one's language; Greek barbaroi was paralleled by Arabic ajam "non-Arabic speakers; non-Arabs; especially Persians.

In the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata , the Sanskrit word barbara- meant "stammering, wretch, foreigner, sinful people, low and barbarous".

According to Romila Thapar, the Indo-Aryan semi-nomadic people viewed the indigenous people as barbarians when they arrived. The term "Barbarian" in traditional Chinese culture had several aspects.

For one thing, Chinese has more than one historical "barbarian" exonym. Historically, the Chinese used various words for foreign ethnic groups.

Some of the examples include "foreigners," [43] "ordinary others," [44] "wild tribes," [45] "uncivilized tribes," [46] and so forth.

Chinese historical records mention what may now perhaps be termed "barbarian" peoples for over four millennia, although this considerably predates the Greek language origin of the term "barbarian", at least as is known from the thirty-four centuries of written records in the Greek language.

The sinologist Herrlee Glessner Creel said, "Throughout Chinese history "the barbarians" have been a constant motif, sometimes minor, sometimes very major indeed.

They figure prominently in the Shang oracle inscriptions, and the dynasty that came to an end only in was, from the Chinese point of view, barbarian.

Shang dynasty — BC oracles and bronze inscriptions first recorded specific Chinese exonyms for foreigners, often in contexts of warfare or tribute.

King Wu Ding r. During the Spring and Autumn period — BC , the meanings of four exonyms were expanded.

Evidently, the barbarian tribes at first had individual names, but during about the middle of the first millennium B. This would, in the final analysis, mean that once again territory had become the primary criterion of the we-group, whereas the consciousness of common origin remained secondary.

What continued to be important were the factors of language, the acceptance of certain forms of material culture, the adherence to certain rituals, and, above all, the economy and the way of life.

Agriculture was the only appropriate way of life for the Hua-Hsia. The Chinese classics use compounds of these four generic names in localized "barbarian tribes" exonyms such as "west and north" Rongdi , "south and east" Manyi , Nanyibeidi "barbarian tribes in the south and the north," and Manyirongdi "all kinds of barbarians.

The Chinese had at least two reasons for vilifying and depreciating the non-Chinese groups. On the one hand, many of them harassed and pillaged the Chinese, which gave them a genuine grievance.

On the other, it is quite clear that the Chinese were increasingly encroaching upon the territory of these peoples, getting the better of them by trickery, and putting many of them under subjection.

By vilifying them and depicting them as somewhat less than human, the Chinese could justify their conduct and still any qualms of conscience.

Pulleyblank says the name Yi "furnished the primary Chinese term for 'barbarian'," but "Paradoxically the Yi were considered the most civilized of the non-Chinese peoples.

Some Chinese classics romanticize or idealize barbarians, comparable to the western noble savage construct.

For instance, the Confucian Analects records:. The translator Arthur Waley noted that, "A certain idealization of the 'noble savage' is to be found fairly often in early Chinese literature", citing the Zuo Zhuan maxim, "When the Emperor no longer functions, learning must be sought among the 'Four Barbarians,' north, west, east, and south.

From ancient to modern times the Chinese attitude toward people not Chinese in culture—"barbarians"—has commonly been one of contempt, sometimes tinged with fear It must be noted that, while the Chinese have disparaged barbarians, they have been singularly hospitable both to individuals and to groups that have adopted Chinese culture.

And at times they seem to have had a certain admiration, perhaps unwilling, for the rude force of these peoples or simpler customs. In a somewhat related example, Mencius believed that Confucian practices were universal and timeless, and thus followed by both Hua and Yi, " Shun was an Eastern barbarian; he was born in Chu Feng, moved to Fu Hsia, and died in Ming T'iao.

Their native places were over a thousand li apart, and there were a thousand years between them. Yet when they had their way in the Central Kingdoms, their actions matched like the two halves of a tally.

The standards of the two sages, one earlier and one later, were identical. Yi countries are therefore virtuous places where people live long lives.

This is why Confucius wanted to go to yi countries when the dao could not be realized in the central states. Some Chinese characters used to transcribe non-Chinese peoples were graphically pejorative ethnic slurs , in which the insult derived not from the Chinese word but from the character used to write it.

For instance, the Written Chinese transcription of Yao "the Yao people ", who primarily live in the mountains of southwest China and Vietnam.

According to the archeologist William Meacham, it was only by the time of the late Shang dynasty that one can speak of " Chinese ," " Chinese culture ," or "Chinese civilization.

The fundamental criterion of "Chinese-ness," anciently and throughout history, has been cultural. The Chinese have had a particular way of life, a particular complex of usages, sometimes characterized as li.

Groups that conformed to this way of life were, generally speaking, considered Chinese. Those that turned away from it were considered to cease to be Chinese.

It was the process of acculturation, transforming barbarians into Chinese, that created the great bulk of the Chinese people. The barbarians of Western Chou times were, for the most part, future Chinese, or the ancestors of future Chinese.

This is a fact of great importance. It is significant, however, that we almost never find any references in the early literature to physical differences between Chinese and barbarians.

Insofar as we can tell, the distinction was purely cultural. Thought in ancient China was oriented towards the world, or tianxia , "all under heaven.

It was believed that the barbarian could be culturally assimilated. In the Age of Great Peace, the barbarians would flow in and be transformed: the world would be one.

According to the Pakistani academic M. Shahid Alam , "The centrality of culture, rather than race, in the Chinese world view had an important corollary.

The people of those five regions — the Middle states, and the [Rong], [Yi] and other wild tribes around them — had all their several natures, which they could not be made to alter.

The tribes on the east were called [Yi]. They had their hair unbound, and tattooed their bodies. Some of them ate their food without its being cooked with fire.

Those on the south were called Man. They tattooed their foreheads, and had their feet turned toward each other. Those on the west were called [Rong].

They had their hair unbound, and wore skins. Some of them did not eat grain-food. Those on the north were called [Di]. They wore skins of animals and birds, and dwelt in caves.

Dikötter explains the close association between nature and nurture. The shufan , or 'cooked barbarians', were tame and submissive.

The consumption of raw food was regarded as an infallible sign of savagery that affected the physiological state of the barbarian. Some Warring States period texts record a belief that the respective natures of the Chinese and the barbarian were incompatible.

Mencius, for instance, once stated: "I have heard of the Chinese converting barbarians to their ways, but not of their being converted to barbarian ways.

Only the barbarian might eventually change by adopting Chinese ways. However, different thinkers and texts convey different opinions on this issue.

The prominent Tang Confucian Han Yu, for example, wrote in his essay Yuan Dao the following: "When Confucius wrote the Chunqiu , he said that if the feudal lords use Yi ritual, then they should be called Yi; If they use Chinese rituals, then they should be called Chinese.

Hence, the historian John King Fairbank wrote, "the influence on China of the great fact of alien conquest under the Liao-Jin-Yuan dynasties is just beginning to be explored.

At the same time, they also tried to retain their own indigenous culture. Similarly, according to Fudan University historian Yao Dali, even the supposedly "patriotic" hero Wen Tianxiang of the late Song and early Yuan period did not believe the Mongol rule to be illegitimate.

In fact, Wen was willing to live under Mongol rule as long as he was not forced to be a Yuan dynasty official, out of his loyalty to the Song dynasty.

Yao explains that Wen chose to die in the end because he was forced to become a Yuan official. So, Wen chose death due to his loyalty to his dynasty, not because he viewed the Yuan court as a non-Chinese, illegitimate regime and therefore refused to live under their rule.

Many Han Chinese writers did not celebrate the collapse of the Mongols and the return of the Han Chinese rule in the form of the Ming dynasty government at that time.

Many Han Chinese actually chose not to serve in the new Ming court at all due to their loyalty to the Yuan.

Some Han Chinese also committed suicide on behalf of the Mongols as a proof of their loyalty. On a side note, one of his key advisors, Liu Ji, generally supported the idea that while the Chinese and the non-Chinese are different, they are actually equal.

Liu was therefore arguing against the idea that the Chinese were and are superior to the "Yi. These things show that many times, pre-modern Chinese did view culture and sometimes politics rather than race and ethnicity as the dividing line between the Chinese and the non-Chinese.

In many cases, the non-Chinese could and did become the Chinese and vice versa, especially when there was a change in culture.

According to the historian Frank Dikötter , "The delusive myth of a Chinese antiquity that abandoned racial standards in favour of a concept of cultural universalism in which all barbarians could ultimately participate has understandably attracted some modern scholars.

Living in an unequal and often hostile world, it is tempting to project the utopian image of a racially harmonious world into a distant and obscure past.

The politician, historian, and diplomat K. Wu analyzes the origin of the characters for the Yi , Man , Rong , Di , and Xia peoples and concludes that the "ancients formed these characters with only one purpose in mind—to describe the different ways of living each of these people pursued.

It carried the connotation of people ignorant of Chinese culture and, therefore, 'barbarians'. Christopher I. Beckwith makes the extraordinary claim that the name "barbarian" should only be used for Greek historical contexts, and is inapplicable for all other "peoples to whom it has been applied either historically or in modern times.

The first problem is that, "it is impossible to translate the word barbarian into Chinese because the concept does not exist in Chinese," meaning a single "completely generic" loanword from Greek barbar-.

That is very definitely not the same thing as 'barbarian'. However, he purports, "The fact that the Chinese did not like foreigner Y and occasionally picked a transcriptional character with negative meaning in Chinese to write the sound of his ethnonym, is irrelevant.

Beckwith's second problem is with linguists and lexicographers of Chinese. There are no critic reviews yet for The Barbarian.

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How did you buy your ticket? View All Photos 4. Movie Info. Diana is to meet her fiance Gerald Reginald Denny in Cairo, but she soon makes the aquaintance of Jamil Ramon Novarro , a handsome local who works for the hotel as a tourist guide.

Jamil returns Diana's lost dog, earning her gratitude, though she's unaware that Jamil took the dog himself so that he could return it to her.

After several days of showing Diana Cairo's most magificnet sights and scheming to keep Gerald at a distance , Jamil reveals his secret to Diana -- that he's actually an Arab prince who wants Diana's hand in marriage.

However, Diana isn't especially taken with this idea at first, and and before long the darker side of Jamil's infatuation makes itself known.

The Barbarian was based in part on one of Ramon Novarro's silent hits, The Arab, and the film inspired more than a few raised eyebrows in thanks to a scene where Myrna Loy swims in the nude at an oasis, though Loy later wrote that she was wearing a flesh-colored body stocking in deference to her modesty and the censors.

Sam Wood. Anita Loos , Elmer Harris.

The Barbarian Video

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